Wednesday, September 18, 2019
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They Contribute To Membrane Function?. Summary. The role of the biological membrane has proved to be vital in countless mechanisms necessary to a cells survival. The phospholipid bilayer performs the simpler functions such as compartmentation, protection and osmoregulation. The proteins perform a wider range of functions such as extracellular interactions and metabolic processes. The carbohydrates are found in conjunction with both the lipids and proteins, and therefore enhance the properties of both. This may vary from recognition to protection. Overall the biological membrane is an extensive, self-sealing, fluid, asymmetric, selectively permeable, compartmental barrier essential for a cell or organelles correct functioning, and thus its survival. Introduction. Biological membranes surround all living cells, and may also be found surrounding many of an eukaryotes organelles. The membrane is essential to the survival of a cell due to its diverse range of functions. There are general functions common to all membranes such as control of permeability, and then there are specialised functions that depend upon the cell type, such as conveyance of an action potential in neurones. However, despite the diversity of function, the structure of membranes is remarkably similar. All membranes are composed of lipid, protein and carbohydrate, but it is the ratio of these components that varies. For example the protein component may be as high as 80% in Erythrocytes, and as low as 18% in myelinated neurones. Alternately, the lipid component may be as high as 80% in myelinated neurones, and as low as 15% in skeletal muscle fibres. The initial model for membrane structure was proposed by Danielli and Davson in the late 1930s. They suggested that the plasma membrane consisted of a lipid bilayer coated on both sides by protein. In 1960, Michael Robertson proposed the Unit Membrane Hypothesis which suggests that all biological membranes -regardless of location- have a similar basic structure. This has been confirmed by research techniques. In the 1970s, Singer and Nicholson announced a modified version of Danielli and Davsons membrane model, which they called the Fluid Mosaic Model. This suggested that the lipid bilayer supplies the backbone of the membrane, and proteins associated with the membrane are not fixed in regular positions. This model has yet to be disproved and will therefore be the basis of this essay. The lipid component. Lipid and protein are the two predominant components of the biological membrane. There are a variety of lipids found in membranes, the majority of which are phospholipids. The phosphate head of a lipid molecule is hydrophilic, while the long fatty acid tails are hydrophobic. This gives the overall molecule an amphipathic nature.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Fighting among tribes, clans, and nations have occurred all throughout history. Civilizations have engaged in warfare to conquer new territories or defend their lands. Debates concerning the justness of war have been going on for many years. While some assert that a just cause is reason enough to engage in war, others believe that nothing can justify war. For my part, to know whether war is just is to understand its cause. In other words, to declare war against another is necessary when it seeks to protect rather than destroy. Based on the just war theory, or jus ad bellum, nations can wage wars when certain circumstances happen. For instance, the bombing of the Pearl Harbor and the threat presented to the nation during World War II were very justifiable reasons to involve the nation in war against Japan and its allies. It retaliation, the U. S. attacked enemy troops and enemy lands. If the United States did not actively participate in neutralizing the enemies, then, it probably would have fallen under the control of foreign troops. On JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s side, it attacked the U. S. naval base because it wanted control of a particular route. Its reason for starting a fighting with the U. S. is not justifiable because it sought to destroy and take control of something that does not belong to them. The roots of jus ad bellum came from St. Thomas AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ writings, which dealt with the moral side of war. Hugo Grotius, a Dutch jurist and philosopher of the seventeenth century, identified three instances wherein war can be considered just. First, it has to done as self-defense. A state attacked by enemies should arm itself and ward off the attackers. Leaders of countries who do not challenge invading forces should be held morally responsible for the fate of their citizens. Those who easily succumb to the will of foreign troops do not remain faithful to their duties of protecting their nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ commerce, sovereignty, and the life of their people. Second, war is permissible in order to restore what has been lost, which implies that lands or properties taken by force by a foreign army should be retrieved using warfare. And lastly, war can be made against another state to exact punishment. In the case of Germany and its allies during the Second World War, they received punishment when the allied forces attacked their countries in order to make them pay for having started the war. Notable people since ancient times have believed that war is just. According to Cicero, war should have a clear goal by determining who and when to fight the enemies. Immanuel Kant notes that war is an important element of humanity. Without it, Kant thinks that people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reach their perfect state. On another note, Jihad is ideally fought to expand and protect Islamic states. It has to be conducted in such a way that it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t kill women and children, nor destroy residences. Some extremists have used the Jihad as a means to incite war versus Christians. In this sense, the Jihad postulated by Saddam Hussein was wrong because it resulted to indiscriminate killings. Just like the Jihad, Christians too have their own religious warfare against heretics, Muslims, and pagans, among others. These wars are called crusades, which aimed to defend Christian lands from getting conquered by foreign armies and to recover territories that have been conquered by non-Christians. To conclude, despite the loss of lives as a result of fighting in large scales, itÃ¢â¬â¢s unavoidable for men to engage in war due of differences in cultures, goals, and values.However, war should only happen as a last course to resolve conflicts. References Grotius, Hugo. On the Law of War and Peace De Jure Belli ac Pacis. 11 April 2008, http://www. constitution. org/gro/djbp_101. htm Maiese, Michelle. Jus Ad Bellum. June 2003. Beyond Intractability. org. 11 April 2008, http://www. beyondintractability. org/essay/jus_ad_bellum/ Why War Home Page. Kant, Hegel and Deleuze on War. 11 April 13, 2008, http://www. why-war. com/commentary/2004/12/kant_hegel_deleuze_war. html
Monday, September 16, 2019
GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer The novel Siddhartha and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer both show commonalities of religion as being an important part in the main characters of both books. In GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer, each of the main individual characters in the first four chapters like the character Siddhartha, all were consistent with the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"What we believe matters. Ã¢â¬ All of the characters from both books used religion for giving them the strength to speak their minds, move on in their lives, and fight for what they believed in or wanted to accomplish.Also, in this book there is the statement of, Ã¢â¬Å"What we believe affects out vocation in relation to cultureÃ¢â¬ and this pertains to the religious ideas and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s courses of action through their faith and experiences they have went through. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s background determines his or her perspective on faith, so this shows how everyone is different. The statement, Ã¢â¬Å"What we believe mattersÃ¢â¬ is the first point that sticks out to me. It is portrayed in the novel Siddhartha multiple times when Siddhartha goes through his different phases of being the son of a Braham, to living with the Samanas, to finally living on his own.He needed to try out different paths, so he would be about to find his own enlightenment or meaning of life. He would not feel whole as a person or have peace, until he found a path that caused him to experience enlightenment. The characters in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer were the same way. Fannie Lou Hamer, Sam Bowers, Douglas Hudgins, and Ed King all were fighting for something, and did not want to give up until they were successful. An example of this is when Mrs. Hamer was being beat in the county jail after trying to vote. Even after being beat, Hamer still used God as her guide to influence other people.She never backed down, but instead was comforted by God and instilled her faith for strength and acted in what she believed. Hamer was different than Si ddhartha though, because she was out to change the world, and he was more focused on himself. The second important point that I found relevant of my understanding of the people and issues in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer was the way the characters in the books went about accomplishing their goals and got past obstacles they were faced with. Hamer was a selfless person who used God as her strength to change things. She puts herself out there, just as Siddhartha had when he lost himself.Siddhartha had to lose himself to accomplish his goal of enlightenment. Hamer knew that if she wanted to win the fight for her voting rights that she would have to have others band together too, by using biblical stories and freedom songs to sell her cause. She believed that others like herself could be empowered by God and if whites and blacks could both believe in such a high power, and then they can believe and get along when they are on the Earth. To accomplish HamerÃ¢â¬â¢s goal, she needed to improve the world, and Siddhartha wanted to escape the world to reach his goal.Sam Bowers and Siddhartha are also examples of obstacles being thrown their way. Bowers hit rock bottom just like Siddhartha did after almost killing himself by the river. In the book, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer written by Charles Marsh, Marsh provides input in his first statement in the book pertaining to, Ã¢â¬Å"What we believe affects our vocation in relation to culture. Ã¢â¬ This whole idea is explaining how everyone has there a different way of thinking about a higher power and Marsh wants people to be able to explore and accept the different types of faith.In the book these varieties of faith cause blacks and whites to have disagreements on issues such as the civil rights movement. The first four chapters of the book support the illustration of what MarshÃ¢â¬â¢s claim and task was. Hamer can see that the people who are discriminating against African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s have a much different perspective on faith than she does. Bowers looks at his faith in a different way as Hamer because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even believe that Jesus can be a Jew because if he were then he would be a part of the inner racial mix, which he was completely against. Ed King and Douglas Hudgins were also different from each other.King had been accused of straying beyond proper bounds of the Christian faith, and Hudgins had been accused of narrowing the bounds of Christianity. Hudgins was all about the understanding of Christianity through the cultural environment, while King thought you had to be prophetic and take action even if it was through just words. I believe that Fannie Lou Hamer is the best example of what Marsh is attempting to demonstrate about the various perspectives of faith. The example that comes to mind when explaining this is when Hamer was in the county jail and was talking to the jailorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife about faith and religion.Hamer used the verses from the Bible to go against the jailorÃ¢â¬ â¢s wife and her own feelings and ideas on faith. Hamer can see that the jailorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife thinks she is a Christian believer, but has a different way of acting as one of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Another example I found in the first chapter about Hamer was when she was in a disagreement with her pastor. She scolded him for not being willing to adopt her stance on the subject. This shows how you think someone who is interacting with your same faith, but when it comes down to it and his or her own lived experience, people react differently.I also found an example in HamerÃ¢â¬â¢s chapter when Lyndon Johnson was running for office and he tried to tamp things down and shut up Hamer. Johnson was even supposed to be a civil rights activist and a believer in faith, but because of his the experience that he was having at the present time in his life, he was not able to be consistent with his beliefs. He said and acted, as he wanted, just so he could get elected into office. Fannie Lou Ha merÃ¢â¬â¢s vocation is using God as her guide to influence other people. She feels like God appointed her, and this gives her a sense of closeness to him. She uses God as her strength to change things.Her goal is to improve the world, and help African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s have an equal chance in the world as everyone else. Hamer is dedicated and relied on her faith for everything. The church and Christianity is a way for people to come together. Hamer feels that if both whites and blacks can believe in such a high power then they can believe and get along when they are on Earth. A contemporary social issue in which people use religion in opposing ways to support their views would be the topic of abortion. There are many similarities and differences between the issue of abortion and the civil rights issue detailed in MarshÃ¢â¬â¢s book.Some similarities between the two issues are that people have very strong opinions on the issues and there are people out there that are fighting for one side or the other on the topics. People are having meetings on abortions talking about why it should be legal or not, and in the case of the civil rights movements there were meetings happening all the time like the meeting with the Credentials Committee in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer. There are also politicians out there like Lyndon Johnson who claim they are all for an issue such as the civil rights movement, but when it comes down to it they may have some restrictions about the issue.Johnson really did not want to have African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s voting and having these kinds of rights because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to make the larger population of people out there getting mad at him, so he could be elected into office. A difference between the two issues is the way people fight for what they want. During the civil rights movement many white people would go as far as abusing or killing blacks, so they could keep them as the lower class that is not as important. I have not heard abo ut people who are for or against abortion going to the extent of killing to get their way or point across.A personÃ¢â¬â¢s vocation usually shapes the way they think or feel about an issue. The issue of abortion means different things to different people because of their vocation. If a person feels that they have been put on this Earth to protect people and think that everyone should have an equal chance for living, then they are more likely to be against abortion. I am a Christian, and have been brought up by my parents to believe that everyone should be treated equally and can make their own choices. This means that I am not against abortions, and feel that it is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to make the decision.Reading Siddhartha and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Long Summer has brought a lot of insight to my beliefs in religion. I am more aware of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and the reasons for why they believe in what they do. Beliefs are formed from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s past experience. I also l earned how God or a personÃ¢â¬â¢s faith can play such a big role in being someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s strength to fight as hard as they can in what the believe in, even when the greater population feels the complete opposite on an issue. Like in Siddhartha, everyone has different paths, and deciding on the right path is up to the person taking it.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Defining and evaluating artistic and aesthetic value has often been a problematic task. This is because aesthetic judgements are subjective and are influenced by prevailing cultural, economic, political, and social norms. Hence, the definition of art remains a contested domain between those who believe in Ã¢â¬Å"high artÃ¢â¬ and the advocates of artistic and cultural relativism. (Danto 35) The difficulty in ascribing aesthetic value to objects is evident in the fact that relativism, with its focus on the individual subjective experience, would render anything and everything as artforms since humans ultimately attach meanings to objects they possess. Changes in culture and socio-economic conditions also alter and influence the very standards by which the aesthetic value of art forms and other objects are judged. For instance, in judging a t-shirt with Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s face printed on it on the front through the use of the silkscreen method, one easily dismisses it as a non-art when judged according to the traditional notions of fine art. This is because the t-shirt and the print on it do not express artistic creativity, which is a prerequisite for objects to be considered art forms. The t-shirt and the print, which can be replicated many times over by any one with knowledge on silk screen printing, do not possess relevant canonic properties of art such as unity, complexity, and intensity which could evoke intense human experiences and therefore, aesthetic appreciation (Goldman 185). The sight of the t-shirt does not stir up feelings of beauty nor does its fabric hold anything extraordinary for the senses. The print on the t-shirt does not convey a particular style to capture attention or cause pain or pleasure, at least not in the way that beholding PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings evoke wonder, mystery, and other psychological sentiments arising purely from the painterÃ¢â¬â¢s use of style, colors, and the imagination. Likewise, the t-shirt with the print on it was created not for the purpose of being admired as an art. As such, the t-shirt is not valuable in itself but gains value for its function to humans, contrary to traditional visual and other forms of art. Art forms are valued for their artistic worth or for their ability to command a definite blending of particular perceptual and sensory elements from the audience (Goldman 188). On the other hand, subjecting the t-shirt to evaluation based on the principles of aesthetic value leads to interesting results. The t-shirt with Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s face printed on it clearly fulfills two aesthetic principles. First, the t-shirt becomes a medium for the image of Bob Marley, a cultural icon in reggae music and in the historical struggle of Jamaicans. In this case, the t-shirt with Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s image transcends its status as an object worn by humans to cover themselves and becomes an expression of the values of reggae and Jamaican culture in a manner similar to cultural artifacts. Second, the t-shirt itself may be valued by an individual for the sentiments attached to the shirt. It could have been given as a gift for an occasion or has been worn to events associated with feelings of happiness which make the t-shirt valuable to the individual because of the memories of joyous times spent while wearing it. Thus, other people might consider the same t-shirt aesthetically valuable. Fenner observes that objects do not have intrinsic aesthetic value; rather it is the subjective experience of humans that create aesthetic value for objects, particularly the expectation of pleasure from an object (122). Those who appreciate and know Bob Marley may value his image on the t-shirt and subsequently feel pleasure or the elevation of other feelings associated with Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s musical contribution and historical roots. As such, the t-shirt may be appreciated by people who share a cultural affinity with Jamaica or of the counterculture that Bob Marley represents. The value of Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s silkscreened image extends to the t-shirt which carries it and reinforces the value of the shirt for its owner. The t-shirt, donned by the owner, can therefore be considered the medium for the expression of individuality and creativity of the wearer. Wearing Bob Marley may be a political or cultural statement for a particular culture, particularly as a representation of the struggle against apartheid or against conventional popular music and the culture it represents. Hence, the appreciation of Jamaican culture or reggae music becomes another definitive aspect of the aesthetic experience that may be separate from the experiences attached to the t-shirt as an object. Likewise, neither the fact that the t-shirt was not created for the sake of art nor its low economic worth prevents it from being categorized as an art form. Fenner notes that the presence of traditional aesthetic properties do not necessarily lead to an aesthetic experience or to the creation of an aesthetic value (121). Hence, the audience can view a pricey painting without feeling any connection with it which would make the painting worthless in terms of evoking a subjective experience of appreciation for creativity or imagination. On the other hand, the same audience may behold the image on a shirt and feel an instant connection, a feeling of intense emotions from memories or meanings attached to the object of attention. It is clear that the traditional definitions of art and the accompanying distinction and stratification between Ã¢â¬Å"high artÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lowbrow artÃ¢â¬ has slowly been eroded with the rise of cultural relativism and postmodern theory. Doubtless, the rigid formality of art has come under attack even within various artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ circles itself that ascribe to the fluidity and less structured styles of postmodern culture. Thus, even an ordinary t-shirt can now be considered an art form when, after critical analysis, it is able to fulfill the principles of aesthetic value. Works Cited: Fenner, David E.W. The Aesthetic Attitude. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1996. Goldman, Alan. Ã¢â¬Å"BeardsleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Legacy: The Theory of Aesthetic Value.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63.2 (2005): 185-190.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
From Corporate America to the Classroom Jon Williams University of Phoenix From Corporate America to the Classroom Leadership by definition is a person who guides or inspires others. In corporate America, we can consider Jack Welch a true pioneer in defining leadership. Jack Welch was able to lead and make General Electric a very competitive enterprise in the world (100 Ventures) during the 1980s. Jack Welch is bringing his lifelong management skills to a new online university program (Glader, 2009). Biography Jack Welch was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1935. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering.In 1960, Jack Welch joined General Electric and worked his way through the ranks to become the Chairman and CEO of GE, making him the eighth and youngest leader (Woopidoo- Biographies- Business Leaders). During his 20 year reign of General Electric, one of Americas largest and most well known companies Jack Welch's management skills became almost legendar y (Woopidoo- Biographies- Business Leaders). His no nonsense leadership style gave him a reputation of being hard, but fair when making business decisions and his style of leadership has been used a model in corporate America. His techniques have been studied and implemented in the U.S. Army (Day, 2001). Jack WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s success was the ability to effectively communicating keys ideas, and constantly repeating them to ensure all employees shared the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Goals In order to become a leader, people should lead more and manage less. As a leader, goals or vision must be created to ignite an organization and make those goals into reality (100 Ventures). Do not micro manage instead inspire others to execute the goals of the organization. Jack believed in seeing change as an opportunity. Change is going to happen and the willingness to change is actually strength.Much has been said and written about Jack Welch and his success. Many managers struggle daily to lead a nd inspire their subordinates to perform. In order to close the gap in a lack of leadership in the business world, Jack believes in educating then next generation of leaders (Glader, 2009). Education Jack has partnered with Chancellor University and plans to use his methods of teaching leadership. Chancellor University will name its Master of Business Administration program Ã¢â¬Å"The Jack Welch Institute. Ã¢â¬ Jack says the MBA program will integrate his philosophy and human resources into a 12-course curriculum designed for managers (Glader, 2009).Conclusion Since retiring in 2001, Jack, 73, has taught management classes at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Glader, 2009). He has written many books about leadership and has shared his success throughout his life. The one key lesson from Jack every manager should practice is, Ã¢â¬Å"Genuine leadership comes from the quality of your vision and your ability to spark others to extraordinary performance,Ã¢â¬ (100 Ventures) . References 100 Ventures. (n. d. ). 25 Lessons from Jack Welch- Business Leadership and New Management Secrets. Retrieved December 26, 2009, from eCoach: http://www. 1000ventures. om/business_guide/mgmt_new-model_25lessons-welch. html Day, D. H. (2001, April). Leadership Development: A review of Best Practices. Retrieved December 26, 2009, from U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavior and Social Sciences: http://www. dtic. mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA391440;Location=U2;doc=GetTRDoc. pdf Glader, P. (2009, June 22). The Jack Welch MBA Coming to Web. Retrieved December 26, 2009, from The Wall Street Journal: http://online. wsj. com/articles Woopidoo- Biographies- Business Leaders. (n. d. ). Jack Welch Biography. Retrieved December 26, 2009, from Woopidoo Web Site: http://www. woopidoo. com/biography/jack-welch. htm
Friday, September 13, 2019
Traditional Sports of Kuwait - Essay Example This event comprises of training the birds to swoop down on their prey from a great height at a great speed and then return to their masters. This requires quite a skill but was practiced and mastered by the people in the ancient days. This sport is an integral part of the desert life but it helped to support the meager diet of dates, milk and bread (United World, 2006). Even though it started as a necessity, it eventually became a sport enjoyed equally by both the rich and the poor. The traditional sport has adopted certain changes. In the ancient days the hunting parties used to pursue their prey on a camel or a horse back but today this has been replaced by a four-wheeled vehicle. The UAE government spends about Dhm100 millions on falconry every year (UAEInteract, 2006). The purpose is two-fold Ã¢â¬â protection of the falcons and creating awareness of this endangered species. Horse racing is still pursued by the modern Kuwaitis. The exclusive Hunting and Equestrian Club is still active although the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s original horses were stolen by Iraqi invaders (HotelTravel, 1999). The club has race tracks and riding and gymkhana facilities along with other sports and recreation facilities. Racing is still held every Monday at 3pm from October to April except during Ramadan (eKuwait, n.d.). Jockeys and horses from all over the world compete on the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s attractive, tree-lined track and is open to public. Camel racing is a sport that has its roots in the desert culture. Camels commonly referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëships of the desertÃ¢â¬â¢ play a vital role in the daily life of the people in the region (Hezaz, 2002). Camels start receiving training when they are 13 months old and it continues up to the age of three when they begin racing. Care is taken of nutrition of the camels and it requires a very careful camel maintenance hierarchy. Nutritionists, feeders, jockeys, drivers, grooms, cleaners,
Thursday, September 12, 2019
The data search - Assignment Example HRM plays an important role in improving the productive contribution of people in the organization that are strategically, ethically and socially responsible. HRM practices and policies translate change as employee commitment & opportunity. HRM is concerned with the people as every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills and motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization in achieving organizational objectives.HRM can practically help organization pull off a great deal of coup by selecting, training and managing excellent people. The task of managing people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world of work is particularly challenging in the light of the changes in efficiency step up. It is difficult to delineate, gauge and evaluate the productivity. To all intents and purposes, cutthroat competition has gained much currency. Never before has the world of work been so challenging. Never before has it been so imperative to our career that we need to learn and develop our skills of management. Never before have had people so many vast opportunities with so many potential rewards. The sources that predominantly support my research are : online databases and hard copy books and journals. The reason I choose these two data sources is that they are highly reliable. There are plenty sources of data but journal and carefully scrutinized research reports do not provide generic information. The differences in information collected from both sources may not be pronounced but it will still help me decide which data source is relatively better for different purposes. Let us first review data collected from online databases. For this purpose I will choose PubMed Central and Medline Plus. Medline is a free online database. The advent of the Internet is dramatically changing scholarly publishing. The growth is because online